Exploring Anterior Circulation, Posterior Circulation, and Protopathic Bias

Discussion A disease is not a thing, but rather a process. A disease has a beginning, a middle, and an end. A treatment intervention that is given in the middle of a disease process may be blamed for causing the disease itself. This is called protopathic bias. Protopathic Bias is when a treatment for the symptoms of a disease or injury appears to cause the outcome, when in fact it did not. Background In 2017, the top-ranked orthopedic journal...

Cauda Equina Syndrome

The cauda equina (Latin for “horse’s tail”) is made up of many nerves that travel down and exit out the sides of the lumbar spine and sacrum (tail bone) and transfer information (motor and sensory) to and from our legs and brain. If the cauda equina becomes compressed, the resulting cauda equina syndrome (CES) is characterized by symptoms such as severe low back pain (LBP); numbness and weakness in the legs,...

The Neck and Tinnitus Relationship

Experts estimate that approximately 10% of the adult population in the United States experienced an episode of tinnitus—the perception of sound or noise without any external auditory stimulus being present—within the last year. Tinnitus can be caused by wax buildup in the ear, medication side effect, noise-induced hearing lost, ear and sinus infections, cardiovascular disease, Meniere’s disease, brain tumors, hormonal changes in women, and thyroid disorders. One cause that gets...

Chiropractic Care for Chronic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Because the early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be mild and tolerable, many patients put off seeing a doctor until the pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in their wrist and hand is no longer bearable. The current research supports chiropractic care as an excellent non-surgical option for new-onset CTS, but what about patients with chronic CTS? In a case series study of 18 women with chronic CTS (defined as...

Baker’s Cyst and Knee Pain

A Baker’s cyst is a swelling located in the back of the knee that can be either asymptomatic or bothersome, especially when bending the knee. Researchers estimate that up to 94% of popliteal (back of the knee) cysts are associated with an intra-articular disorder, most commonly meniscus (“cartilage”) tears, as well as osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis (like rheumatoid), and ACL tears. In about 50% of healthy adult knees, there is a valvular...

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